The Macedonian King Archelaos (413-399 B.C.), according to his contemporary Thukydides, the Athenian historian of the Peloponnesian War who knew the North Aegean well, built castles, forts and straight roads in the country and also invested more in war equipment – horses, armour and other weapons – than all his predecessors put together. Nevertheless, Arrian, the historian of Alexander the Great viewing Macedonia about two generations later, gained the impression that before the time of Philip II (359-336) the Macedonians led the life of poor shepherds and were a target of continual attacks from their neighbors. Safe frontiers and the affluence of an urban civilization were first attained under Philip II.
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